Here is an introduction to using business Rules Engine (BRE) services within Business Rule Management Systems (BRMS) that make systems intelligent.
First of all, a business rule engine (BRE) moves business logic from being embedded (hard coded) in application code and treat business rules so that they can be more easily changed and thus more flexible, which enhances business agility.
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Business Rules are also called policies because rules can specify dynamic workflows (what users see and do).
There are several different types of rules. forward chaining rules include:
Production/inference (IF condition THEN action) rules are invoked when called. Examples:
Reactive (Event Condition Action) rules are triggered by a change in the status of events. Examples:
Products such as the Swedish RuleCore collect event XML issued as messages from code placed in applications code.
Rule engines process facts through rules. The knowledge base of facts can be include values from external sensors (such as a rain guage) or (of course) a database. A fact model is similar to a class diagram.
Rules engines are smart in that they match patterns of facts. For example, in a credit granting application, a rules engine can process "If the transaction is international and the cardholder has never bought a plane ticket, question the charge."
Actions are also called consequences. The (profit) potential of expert rules is that advanced engines can use backward chaining logic that works backward from consequences. This is done though working from assertions.
Rules themselves can be generated dynamically as a result of the rules engine observing patterns.
There are different types of rules:
A Business Rule Engine (BRE) pretty much needs to operate as a service on a separate server because it is likely going to need memory and compute power, especially when more complex rules are added.
Since XML over HTTP is a popular choice for communication among machines, Hayley defined the vendor neutral RML (Rules Markup Language) for JSR 94.
RuleLab.Net offers a XML service for ASP.
Drools running under JBoss can exchange XML as well with a wrapper.
The Sun JSR (Java Specification Request) 94 Rules Administrator to
load rules is defined in the javax.rules.admin package.
Every technology provides both rewards and dangers. Here are both the pros and cons.
It would be helpful if each of these items can be associated with a common factor of dollars.
In 2005 this Forrester's Wave compares top vendors on their combination of strategy and execution.
Although Fair Isaac was lauded by InfoWorld as its BRMS awardee, (followed by InfoWorld's evaluator going to work for them), numerical ratings are very close and one should also consider other important strategic factors:
Simulating rule execution is especially important with rules. Software that helps with the creation and manipulation of rules should (as Haley Tabular Rules does), analyze rulesets to ensure:
Business Rules Management System (BRMS)
RuleXpress and RuleTrack from Business Rule Solutions, LLC (London, UK)
OpenL Tablets use spreadsheets as input.
But more complicated rules require ontology languages (including XSB Prolog, Jess, HP Jena-2, and IBM CommonRules) which have origins in (artificial intelligence) languages Lisp and Smalltalk. These have their own specialized vocabulary.
Rete (pronounced Ree-tee) is an efficient rule evaluation algorithm because it remembers past test results across iterations of the rule loop, thus avoiding the inefficiencies of repeating the process of rules looking for facts. Its names (from the Latin/Italian 'rete' for net, or network) stems from its use of a network of nodes. It was developed in the late 1970s by CMU Dr. Charles Forgy.
"Expert Systems: Principles and Programming" by Giarrantano and Riley, Second Edition, (Boston: PWS Publishing, 1993).
At the Rule Task level, the execution algorithm.
The JBoss Rules engine uses what it calls the Rete-OO algorithm after adding node types needed for within an object-oriented (OO) language.
OMG's "Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Business Rules" (SBVR) specification.
Business Motivation Model (BMM)
OPS5 benchmark (dated 1991) from the University of Texas includes two benchmarks.
The Miss Manners test becomes increasingly complex with the addition of hobbies and guests. The original test was written to stress any rule base, but some BRMS vendors discovered a trick to beat the system: By putting a single “not” statement in one of the rules, they enabled their systems to run the test 15 or 20 times faster. (Another trick is to rearrange the data so that the rules will run faster because the benchmark is data-sensitive.) Nevertheless, if you omit the tricks, Miss Manners is a very good measure of how fast a rules-inferencing system will run on any give platform and CPU.
Fair Isaac produced an internal benchmark.
Because Rules provide a mechanism for handling complex logic, a more complex vocabulary is needed to describe that mechanism:
pattern matching complement
algorithms share condition tests.
decision tables and Decision Trees
Incremental updates triggered by
dynamic scheduling using:
Ruleflow to segment and control rule execution
Conditions of code calling for code to be executed. http://www.knowledgerulesinc.com/krome.htm
The complexity of Business Rules makes it important to use a good methdology. Pega Systems measures compliance to its "Guardrail" standard for configurations.
Knowledge Rules offers its KROME
runtime execution performance, parsing time
Modeling Rule-Based Systems with Eclipse EMF by Chaur G. Wu
Eclipse Modeling Framework" (Addison Wesley) by Frank Budinsky, David Steinberg, Ed Merks, Raymond Ellersick, Timothy J. Grose,
CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System) in the public domain due to its funding (until 1996) by NASA's Johnson Space Center, is a C-based creation for Mac and PC computers. "Although originally modelled from ART, CLIPS was developed entirely without assistance from Inference or access to the ART source code." Maintainted by NASA Artificial Intelligence Section CLIPS developers Dr. Joseph Giarratano and Gary David Riley, who authored the academic textbook Expert Systems: Principles and Programming (Course Technology; 4th edition, October 15, 2004)
International Business Rules Forums, usually October in Orlando, Florida.
The Business Rules Community is a vertical, non-commercial community for business rule professionals
Principles of the Business Rules Approach (2007) by Ronald G. Ross This book reflects use of BRS RuleSpeak (the set of formal rules and approach for identifying, classifying, and expressing business rules).
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