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    Set this at top of window.
      Connection Wiring Speed KB/s Wiring
      DDS telephone 56Kbps 7
      ISDN 1 BRI (phone line) - 65Kbps 8
      ISDN 2 BRI (phone line) - 128Kbps 16
      “broadband” -- > 128Kbps > 16
      Japanese I-mode, mLife wireless - 18
      DSL telephone 300Kbps 37.5
      USB 1.0 "low-speed" 1.5 Mbps 187.5
      USB 1.1 "full-speed" 12 Mbps 1,562.5
      USB 2.0 "hi-speed" 480 Mbps 60,000
      HDMI   10.2 Gbps 1,560,000 19 leads type A connectors
      Frame Relay -- 64KB to
      1.544 Mbps
      8
      - 194.375
      Fractional T1 -- 256 Mbps 256
      DS1/T1 Carrier (24 channels) dedicated 1.544 Mbps 1,544
      DS3/T3 Carrier dedicated 44.736 Mbps 44,736
      ATM-25 twisted-pair copper 25 Mbps 25,000
      ATM twisted-pair copper 155 Mbps 155,000
      OC-1 SONET fiber 51 Mbps 51,000
      OC-3 SONET fiber 155 Mbps 155,000
      OC-12 SONET fiber 622 Mbps 622,000
      OC-48 SONET fiber 2.4 Gbps 2,400,000
      OC-192 SONET fiber 10 Gbps 10,400,000
      OC-48 with WDM fiber 40 Gbps 40,000,000
      OC-768 fiber 40 Gbps -
      OC-3072 fiber 160 Gbps -
      OC-768 with DWDM fiber 6.4 Tbps -

      This table normalizes.

      Kbps = Kilo bits per second
      Mbps = Mega bits per second
      Gbps = Giga bits per second

      WDM = Wave Division Multiplexing
      DWDM = Dense Wave Division Multiplexing.

      To calculate how long it would take to download a 100KB file, multiply your file's size by 8 to get the number of bits, then divide by the speed in kilobytes. Example: 100Kb file * 8 / 56Kbs = 14 seconds.

      To avoid excessive Propagration delays on 802.3 networks, observe the 5-4-3 Rule: No more than 5 segments of cable, connected by 4 non-filtering repeaters, where only 3 of the segments have computers attached.

      A network's physical characteristics are described using these values:

        R = data rate (for example, 10 Mbps)

        d = distance of network in meters (10 m, 100 m, 100 km)

        V = propagation velocity of signal: (about 2 10m for copper wire)

        L = length of frame in bits (for instance, 1000 b, 5000 b)

        (R * d) / V defines the number of bits that can be on the wire at any time. For a 10 Mbps Ethernet segment that is 500 m long, the bit length is 25.

        Since a sending device will want to put its entire frame on the wire, a useful way to think about the length of the network in bits is to put it in relation to the size of the frame that is being transmitted on the wire. The variable a represents the length of the medium in relation to the frame size:

          a = length of wire (b) / length of frame (b) = (R * d) / (V * L)

          If a = 1, then the length of the physical medium is equal to the length of one frame. Usually, a is much less than 1 for LANs, however. This means the frame is much longer than the length of the medium in bits. In the Ethernet example used above, the length of the wire was 25 bits, but frames are typically much larger than this on LANs-thousands of bits, thus a = 0.01 to 0.1.


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