- NT support Intel's SMP Symmetric Multi Processing
with up to 2 Intel Inside processors per workstation or
4 processors per server.
SMP is not available with
AMD K6, Cyrix/ IBM 6x86MX, or IDT Centaur processors.
- In this table, "Bus /Addr Bits" is the maximum bit size of the instructions that the processor can handle.
| Intro||Type||Bus /Addr Bits||Bus MHz||Speed MHz||Memory|
| || IBM PC-XT 8088 Dual In-line IC || || || || |
| || PC-AT || 16/24 || 33-100 || || 30 pin SIMM |
| || EISA Bus 486 || 16 || 32 MB/s |
| 32 || 30 pin SIMM |
| || Pentium || 32 || 60/66 || 60-133 || 72 pin SIMM |
| || Pentium MMX cache on system board|| 32 || 60/66 || 100-233 || 168 pin DIMM |
| || Pentium Pro with on-board 256/512 half-speed L2 cache in an external PGA and a separate cache bus|| 32 || 60/66 || 100-233 || 168 pin DIMM |
| || "586" Pentium II 440BX chip Slot I cartridge with 512K L2 cache || 64 || 100 || 233, 266, 333, 350, 400 || 168 pin DIMM |
| || Pentium II .18µ Xeon chip Slot 2 2MB L2 cache || 64 || 100 || 400,450 || 168 pin DIMM |
| || "686" Pentium III i815 chipset || 1.1GHz |
| || AMD Athelon (requires 300 watt power supply)|
| || Intel Celeron with 128K L2 on board full speed|| |
| || Intel Rambus || Double|
| || 800 |
| || Intel Coppermine with 512K full speed L2|| |
| '01 || Intel Itanium I (from "Merced" project w/HP)|| 64 || 733-800 |
| '02 || Intel's 3.6GHz Xeon ("McKinley") processor based on its IA-32 chip architecture ||
| '03 || AMD Opteron IA64 extensions to IA32 ||
| 9/03 || AMD Athlon IA64 extensions to IA32 |
| 2/04 || Intel .13µ P4 ("Madison, Deerfield") w/extensions to IA32 || EMT64 |
| 05 || Intel ("Willamette") || IA-32 || >1.4GHz |
Note: all computers wait at the same speed.
Intel P4's have a new core and APIC bus multiprocessor protocol —
400MHz data transfer rate on the system bus for a bandwidth of 3.2GB/sec
Chipsets for Socket 775 :
Intel 925X Express chipset for workstations supports PCI-Express x16 (video) and x1 (general-purpose) slots, high-definition audio (7.1 speaker support), dual-channel DDR2 memory, USB 2.0 ports, Serial ATA and matrix storage.
Motherboards are designed to support specific types of RAM.
DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) is used as the main (or system memory) a PC uses
to store the operating system, application programs, and data while they are running.
DRAM has to be refreshed approximately every 15ms because it
stores data as electrical charges which gradually discharges.
Nevertheless, DRAM is popular because of its high (MB per chip) density and low price.
FPM (Fast Page Mode) speeds DRAM standard access of 50 and 70ns
because rather than sending both row and column address to a memory cell,
FPM sends row addresses just once for many accesses to memory near each other.
EDO (Extended Data Output) DRAM improves read times up to 30%
by outputing data from one address while simultaneously setting up the access request for the next one.
BEDO (Burst Extended Data Output) DRAM is supported by some motherboards, but has not gained wide acceptance.
It is similar in performance to Synchronous DRAM.
SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM) is designed to run at motherboard clock speeds:
66, 100, and 133MHz. for transfer speeds of up to 1.064 GB/sec.
Rambus DRAM (RDRAM), proprietary to Intel and Rambus, uses a bus width of 2 bytes vs. SDRAM's 8 bytes, to achieve
effective clock speeds of up to 800MHz and speeds of up to 1.6 GB/sec.
Double Data Rate SDRAM (DDR SDRAM) transfers data twice
in one cycle for speeds from 100Mhz to 166Mhz and
theoretical maximum bandwidth for 100Mhz DDR at 1.6 GB/sec (100Mhz x 2 x 8 bytes).
So for marketing hype they are named PC1600, PC2100, etc.
Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) store data in an electronic circuit called a flip-flop.
which is four or five times faster than DRAM because it uses six transitors to store
a bit cell vs. one for DRAM.
VRAM (or dual-port RAM) is used on high-performance video adapters by giving
separate read and write ports for simultaneous read/write.
WRAM (Window RAM) is a modification of dual-port VRAM for 25% faster speed for graphics cards
such as Matrox's Millennium series.
SGRAM (Synchronous Graphics RAM) increases its single-port DRAM memory transfer speed
by working with video card acceleration features.
- Celeron chips ("The Castrated One") don't have 512K L2 2nd-level Cache memory
- Chips can be 5V or 3.5V (used in laptops), internal bus provides 5 and 12V power.
- Within a system bus, the North Bridge connects to low (2.5v) voltage devices such as DRAMs
and 1.5V AGP buses (such as Intel 815 and 845G integrated chipset used on nVIDIA nForce2).
The South Bridge connects to higher (3.5 - 5V) voltage devices such as I/O.
- Two power connectors: larger milky molex connectors
and small white berg connectors in 12V or 5v. Check with a voltmeter.
12v chip fans have to connect directly from the power supply
- Windows 9x recognizes up to 3 parallel ports.
- Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) refers to two or more processors operating with equal priorities in a system.
- Intel's P6 Microarchitecture processors are housed in a Single Edge Contact Cartridge (S.E.C.C.)
attached to a 242 Contact Slot Connector on the motherboard.
Its Dual Independent Bus (DIB) architecture provides a separate, dedicated bus for the L2 cache using BSRAM (Burst Sync Random Access Memory) chips.
This second bus removes a large amount of traffic from the system bus, providing improved throughput.
The L2 cache bus runs at half the processor's internal speed,
flexibiy increasing speed processor speed increases.
P6 systems BIOS can take advantage of multiple processors working together and share workloads.
Mulit-processing must be enabled by a BIOS setting called MPS (MultiProcessing Specification),
Different versions of MPS:
MPS1.4 is the proper setting for all multiple processor systems running any version of Windows NT.
The BIOS setting must be reset each time the BIOS is upgraded.
MPS1.1, the default version, is for all multiprocessing systems except Windows NT*, such as Netware* (4.x and up), Unixware* (2.11SMP and up) and SCO OpenServer*.
POST Power On Self Test
Unicore ( AMI & Award) 978-686-6468
Mr. BIOS (MB)
Micro Firmware (Phoenix) 405-321-8333
Chip Directory has numerically and functionally ordered chip
lists, chip pinouts and lists of chip manufacturers, controller embedding tools manufacturers, electronics books, cdrom's, magazines, and web links.
Evaluations by the Duke of URL
11th commandment: Covet not thy neighbor's Pentium.
CPU Central and Multilink compare processors.
Introduction to Chipsets clearly presents information with clean webpage formats.
Dr. Dobb's Journal's
Intel Motherboard manuals.
Chipset Specs details all manufacturers.
PC Warehouse's Memory Selector