These notes on wireless technologies are difficult to come by because carriers want to make money by making it as difficult as people to use alternatives. Ever get a phone bill the size of mortgage payments?
Computers can communicate wirelessly using different technologies:
The FTC and EU limits the amount of Radio Frequency (RF) radiation levels your body absorbs from cell phones to an SAR (Specific Absorption Rate) of 1.6W/kg & 2.0 (watts per kilogram), respectively. But it's better if you get a cell phone with lower SAR.
Devices need to be compatible with what carrers offer in all these aspects:
To recognize new receivers, digitial cell phones need to have their internal Preferred Roaming List (PRL) updated periodically at a phone service store.
Carriers usually have roaming agreements to provide coverage over several frequencies (at outrageous extra fees).
Apple iOS iPhones and iPads contain chips to support several frequencies, as does the Samsung Galaxy S2 and other Android phones.
850/900/1900/1800 MHz on GSM
850/900/1900/2100 MHz on UTMA HSDPA
Apple’s iPhone 6 (Models A1549 and A1586) and iPhone 6 Plus (Models A1522 and A1524 on Sprint CDMA) provide near complete global coverage for GSM and UMTS/HSPA+ networks all over the world.
They support four-band GSM, five-band CDMA2000, five-band UMTS (with HSPA+42 support), and sixteen LTE FDD bands (with support for up to 150Mbps of download speeds):
The five CDMA2000 bands enable coverage on all CDMA carriers in the US (who use ESMR, Cellular 850MHz, AWS 1.7+2.1 GHz, and PCS 1.9GHz for CDMA), as well as KDDI in Japan (who use Cellular 850MHz and IMT 2.1GHz for CDMA) and China Telecom in China (who use Cellular 850MHz for CDMA). These bands are the same as the American Sprint model for the iPhone 5S and 5C.
For LTE FDD, the iPhone 6s support a full mix of bands for every region. LTE bands 1 (IMT 2.1GHz), 3 (DCS 1.8GHz), 5 (Cellular 850MHz), 7 (IMT-E 2.6GHz FDD), 8 (Cellular 900MHz), 20 (EU 800MHz), and 28 (APT 700MHz) are supported to provide the full range of access to LTE FDD networks throughout Europe, Asia, and Brazil. LTE bands 2 (PCS A-F blocks 1.9GHz), 4 (AWS-1 1.7+2.1GHz), 5 (Cellular 850MHz), 7 (IMT-E 2.6GHz FDD), 13 (US Upper 700MHz C block), 17 (US Lower 700MHz B+C blocks), 25 (PCS A-G blocks 1.9GHz), 26 (ESMR+Cellular 850MHz), 28 (APT 700MHz), and 29 (US Lower 700MHz Supplemental Downlink) offer nearly full access to LTE FDD networks throughout the Americas.
Noticeably missing is LTE band 12 A-C blocks, which T-Mobile USA has spent a lot of money deploying the 700 Mhz (Advanced Wireless Spectrum) purchased from Verizon.
Japanese LTE bands 18 (ESMR+Cellular 850MHz subset) and 19 (Cellular 850MHz subset) are intended to enable KDDI and NTT DoCoMo’s low-band networks, while band 28 sits in the wings for future 700MHz LTE network rollouts by KDDI, DoCoMo, and SoftBank.
|US Carrier|| Bearer|
|CDMA2000 1xRTT||1900||1900 G-Block, 2,500/2,600, 800|
Cellular refers to the AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) and IS-136 (D-AMPS) cellular networks on the
"850 MHz band" (actually 800-894 MHz, specifically 824-849 and 869-894 MHz), used by the first mobile devices in the US.
PCS (Personal Communications Service)
(CDMAOne using QPSK/BPSK modulation at 1.25MHz)
in 1995 Canada, Mexico and the United States
runs at the
"1900 MHz band" (actually 1850-1990 MHz, specifically 1,850-1,910 and 1,930-1,990 MHz). Before switching to CDMA, Sprint originally used GSM radio interface equipment, but sold it to what eventually became T-Mobile.
4G LTE in the US runs in the
700 Mhz band (specifically 698-806 MHz), previously used for analog television broadcasts, were auctioned in early 2008.
BLAH: LTE subscribers on Verizon and AT&T in the US cannot currently roam between each operator's bands on their respective 700MHz 4G deployments.
BLAH: LTE devices from the US cannot use the 2.1GHz frequency used on the Rogers Wireless network in Canada. (Canadian Industry Minister Tony Clement has previously said that a 700MHz auction could happen by late 2012.)
Glossaries of Telecom terms are provided by WebCitation.org
WirelessAdvisor.com lists the carriers operating in each zip code.
While LTE is much faster than 3G, it also uses more energy.
https://developer.att.com/application-resource-optimizer/docs/best-practices/comparing-lte-and-3g-energy-consumption ATT reports that 3G consumes a total of 34.67 vs. 45.16 jules of energy for LTE.
Air interface techologies:
FDMA (Fixed Division Multiple Access) NMT is a 1G Analog service.
CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) is a proprietary standard designed by Qualcomm by the CDMA Development Group (CDG) and used (by Sprint EarthLink Wireless Enhanced Access) to send digital transmissions between a mobile phone and a radio base station. It allows for multiple transmissions to be carried simultaneously on a single wireless channel.
CDMA2000 1X is a 3G technology that offers wireless data access at speeds with a theoretical maximum of 153.6kbps but practically equivalent to a 56k dial-up modem. The Sprint/EarthLink Wireless Enhanced Access service operates on both the 800 MHz (Cellular) and 1900 MHz (PCS) bands.
CDMA2000 phones use EVDO, which boasts a theoretical downstream speed of about 2 megabits per second. Because high traffic can degrade speed and performance real, its world speeds are closer to 300-700 kilobits per second (kbps), which is comparable to basic DSL.
TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access), defined by the IS-136 standard, is also known as D-AMPS (Digital AMPS). It allows for digital transmission of radio signals between a mobile device and a fixed radio base station. It allows for increased bandwidth over digital cellular networks.
GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) was defined as IS-95 by the GSM Association founded in 1987.
GSM-Data is a digital cellular or PCS standard for how data is coded and transferred through the wireless spectrum. It is the 2G TDMA wireless standard throughout the world - except in the United States. GSM is an alternative to CDMA.
EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution)
phones on GSM networks
boast data rates of up to 384 kbps (but with real world speeds reported closer to 70-140 kbps).
Added technologies include
UMTS (Universal Mobile Telephone Standard) and HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access) which boost speeds to about 275-380 kbps.
BLAH: This technology is also known as
W-CDMA, but is incompatible with CDMA networks.
1xEV/DO (Evolution Data Only) rated at ~1.5Mbps is an intermediate step in data networking of the CDMA2000 G3 upgrade. being trailed by Verizon in Washington DC and San Diego.
1xEV/DV (Evolution Data/Voice) with voice and data sharing the same 2Mbps bandwidth is the final step in Sprint's CDMA2000 G3 network rollout, skipping EV/DO.
Most carriers provide several technologies to their subscribers (perhaps through agreements with other carriers), although different networks are available in different areas.
HSPA+ (High Speed Packet Access Plus and also called Evolved HSPA)
offers theoretical download data speeds of up to 168Mbps and uplink of 22Mbps
(with 42Mbps actuals)
as a further evolution of
HSPA (High Speed Packet Access) which theoretically download data at up to 21 Mbps using fundamentally 3G HSUPA and HSDPA technologies.
HSPA+ is widely considered by technical experts as a "3.5G" or, at most, a "3.75G" network.
BLAH: HSPA+ technology is marketed by some carriers as "4G" -- a deceptive marketing practice.
3.9G OFDMA (LTE/SAE ==>EPS) with PS ~ 100 Mbps ???
for VoIP and data in 2010.
LTE (Long Term Evolution), is considered a "true"
SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) chips go in GSM phones.
R-UIM (???) chips go in CDMA phones.
These cards can be purchased for each country instead of international roaming on phones capable of quad-band (850/900/1800/1900 MHz) reception.
Chips can be of are different sizes. Apple iPhones accept smaller micro SIMs which are created by a special device that clips edges off larger size chips.
DO THIS: To unlock Apple devices, Call your carrier to request that Apple unlock your device. When you plug your device to sync to iTunes on a Mac or PC, the unlock code is set on the device.
Unlocking also occurs by jailbreaking Apple devices and rooting Android devices.
Wi-Fi is short for “Wireless Fidelity”, named by the Wi-Fi Alliance of leading wireless equipment and software providers which tests and certifies 802.11-based products for interoperability.
Microsoft Windows Phone
Casio Pocket Viewer/Manager.
Java/J2ME (Micro Edition) supported by Sun's Java Developer Connection.
Ericsson Mobility World
W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) is a technology for wideband digital radio communications in Internet, multimedia, video and other capacity-demanding applications. It provides a data rate of 2Mbps.
3G mobile technology UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) delivers audio and video to wireless devices anywhere in the world through fixed, wireless and satellite systems.
WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) is a
secure specification that allows users to access information instantly via handheld wireless devices such as mobile phones, pagers, two-way radios, and PDAs.
Going to a non-WAP site typically results in message 406 No acceptable objects were found
BWA (Broadband Wireless Access) — 28 GHz in the US (22-42 Ghz elsewhere)—
can support the equivalent of 3800 telephone lines.
Hybrid Networks supplies fixed broadband wireless for Sprint and Worldcom in the US. Alcatel is big in France. Alvarion is from Tel Aviv.
At $595 for 24 issues a year, Alan A Reiter's Wireless Internet & Mobile Computing magazine is packed with detailed information.
Mobile PC Magazine $12 for 12 issues/year
Handheld Computing Magazine $17.95 for 6 issues/year
Pocket PC Magazine $19.95 for 6 issues/year
$98/49 Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice, 2nd Edition (Prentice Hall; December 31, 2001) by Theodore S. Rappaport, IEEE Fellow and head of the Wireless Networking and Communications Group at the Univ. of Texas at Austin. This is the leading technical book used throughout the Cellular & PCS Industry.
/$2 Wireless Broadband Networks Handbook (McGraw Hill, 2001) by John R. Vacca and Michael Erbschloe. Presents a comprehensive review of the current and future state of 3G & LMDS.
GSM SMS (Short Messaging Service) enables mobile phone users to "chat" with each other using pure text messages of up to 160 characters. See http://www.ericsson.com/ems/
EMS (Enhanced Messaging Service) adds to SMS text formatting such as bold or underline for emphasis.
MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service) "pushes" images, sound/video clips, and other attachments transported over underlying bearers (wireless networks) using the WAP protocol to MMS enabled mobile devices.
MMS implementations from Nokia and Ericsson use WAP for transporting MMS messages between the MMSC (MMS Control Centre) and mobile devices.
Note: Microsoft also uses MMS to mean “Microsoft Metadirectory Services”, a tool (formerly Zoomit Via) Microsoft consulting services sells as a bundled solution for inter-forest synchronization (synchronizing different directory services such as Active Directory, Novell's NDS, and OpenLDAP).
CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data) allows telecommunications companies to transfer data over existing cellular networks to users.
RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is an analog-to-digital conversion technology that uses radio frequency waves to transfer data between a moveable item and a reader to identify, track or locate that item.
Sprint PCS Vision cameras in Samsung A500 and Samsung N400 PCS phones take (outdoor) photos at 474x357 pixels using 128 colors. The phone transmits (at about twenty seconds per picture) PhoneMail files to a pictures.sprintpcs.com, using technology from LightSurf, a private company founded in 1998 by industry visionary Philippe Kahn (of Borland fame).
Hot Spots are Wireless access points found in public places such as airports, conventions centers, hotels and coffee shops. They exist mostly through roaming agreements with Wi-Fi carriers Airpath Wireless and Wayport. McDonalds restaurants uses Cometa Networks, formed in 2002 by IBM, Intel and AT&T. Verizon is providing Wi-Fi access through transmitters on its public pay phones.
Multi-carrier Resellers/integrators such as inphonic.com provide comparisons of phones and plans.
$650 from Sprint before a $150 rebate for new lines on a 2 year agreement, plus $80 when bought from Amazon.
Ebay search for Hitachi G1000 has most auctions ending at about $400.
Pocket PC magazine awards lists add-ons.
Windows Mobile 2003 OS Pocket PC 2003 PDAs
Note 1: CF = CompactFlash Type II
Both Alltel and Sprint offer this phone. Sprint charges an additional $20 per month (after 2 months) for accessing their EV-DO (400 Kbps T1 speed) 3G data network in major cities
I had hoped the 2.8" diagonal wide screen (which takes up most of its 4.25" x 2.3" body) would make it usable for displaying Powerpoint speaker notes while I give lectures. But the rather standard 65,000-color 320x240 pixel resolution killed that idea.
But alas, I'm not able to set a smaller font, so words are misaligned on web pages on the "MSIE 4.01" browser. Even more alarming, the browser does not think of itself as a "handheld" device. in Handheld CSS media type test1 and test2. So even if you hit the rare page that has been coded for smaller handheld device screens, the PPC6700 will still use the full-size screen's CSS code! Plus, it won't recognize WAP pages, either. So the unit is in a "no-man's land".
Is this a deliberate ploy so that only specific websites, such as the for-fee Active Engine/Info can be read properly? It's the default IE screen much like Microsoft ships Windows with "MSN.com" as the default IE site.
The "Powerpoint Mobile" application only a viewer, and does not display speaker notes.
To download powerpoint files, you cannot paste files to the mobile phone's file section using Windows Explorer. Such files will be ignored by the mobile device. You must paste them into the folder than comes up after you click the "Explore" button in the ActiveSync dialog. This triggers a file format conversion into the mobile format.
The Adobe Reader for Pocket PC is 13.5MB!
The unit can connect to WPA and WEP protected Wi-Fi networks. But a known bug (confirmed with Sprint Tech Support at 866.615-6387) is that when the unit goes into "Airplane mode" automatically under low signal conditions (such as actually being in an airplane), the only way to get it working again is to remove the battery, since the on/off button does not turn the unit off completely.
Although its 416mhz runs fast, the Windows Mobile 5.0 user experience is not as user friendly as a Blackberry or Treo 6xx:
For more fields than what standard Outlook 2003 provides (as part of Microsoft Office Professional Edition 2003), download Microsoft's Business Contact Manager Update (250 MB).
Microsoft Exchange 2003 Service Pack 2 users with devices running the Messaging and Security Feature Pack features DirectPush Mail, local device wipe, and certificate-based authentication to Exchange Server.
As for the hardware:
Like Scott Moritz, I too found the side buttons far too easy to hit accidentally. I often find the phone inadvertently launching the browser or recording a note.
I'm glad to get screen protectors at $13 each from Anti-Glare screen protector
I miss the dedicated buttons for task list, calendar, etc. that Palm PDAs provide. Instead, there are Microsoft-centric buttons for Windows, IE, and Inbox, which makes me take several more actions to get to what I need.
The 1.3 megapixel camera can take panorama shots at up to 1280x1024 resolution. But the 0.7-second shutter delay is longer than "real" cameras.
Of the unit's 128MB of RAM, only 49MB is available for actual file storage.
When you buy a miniSD storage card, make sure to buy one with an adaptor into full-size SD cards.
The speakerphone is loud compared with other PDAs.
It uses 3.5 mm connectors for standard Bluetooth headsets.
I wish (for the price) they would add background-noise cancellation. One has to pay extra for Microsoft's Voice Command voice-dialing software, and that application can't be activated from a Bluetooth
All this power sucks the life out of the 1350mAh battery within 4 hours of talk time. So I doubt the 8 days of rated standby time. This reviewer reports that "Running a video on a loop for four hours depleted the battery by only 30 percent."
Unlike this reviewer, I won't rate the 6.1 ounces device "heavy".
They use Intel's StrataFlash low 1.8V (L18) Multi-Level Cell (MLC) device manufacturer using the Intel Stacked Chip Scale Packaging (Stacked-CSP) technology. It's also available in 3v (L30).
What also makes them fast is dual-mode Read-While-Write/Erase Operation (RWW/E).
They come with a 32kb data cache and a 32kb instruction cache (otherwise called a 64kb Level 1 cache on other processors). They also all have a 2kb mini-data cache.
XScale is a RISC-based architecture, but the "Wireless MMX" of the PXA27x (Bulverde) family have 43 new SIMD instructions containing the full MMX instruction set and the integer instructions from Intel's SSE instruction set (along with some instructions unique to the XScale) which boosts speed in decoding and encoding of multimedia and in game playing.
The XScale microprocessor is used in the Dell Axim X50v, Palm Zire, later Sharp Zaurus models and many PDAs and PVP's (Portable Video Players), and PMC's (Portable Media Centres) such as the Creative Zen Portable Media Player. It is used as the main CPU in the Iyonix desktop computer running RISC OS
Up to 4 hours 20 minutes with Pentium M processor
Up to 5 hours 20 minutes with Pentium M processor
Batteries lose their charge gradually even when not used.
After 6 months, NiCd batteries can only hold a 50% charge.
So recharge them once a month, or completely drain and fully recharge them 4 times.
Alkaline disposable batteries (even the over-hyped "high capacity" Super Titanium E3) drain quickly, especially with LCDs on digital devices. Not only that, their ingredients are toxic in land fills.
Ni-Cad/NiCd (Nickel-Cadmium) rechargeable batteries have "memory". So they should be completely discharged before being recharged again. A few "smart" chargers take care of this automatically.
Ni-MH (Metal Hydrad) batteries now go up to power/stamina of 2500mAh (milliamp hours). These also have a "memory effect", so they need to be drained and recharged 3-5 times before they can maintain a full charge.
Li-Ion (Lithium-Ion) laptop batteries are the most advanced. They have System Management Bus (SMBus) circuits that monitors the battery for remaining capacity, output voltage, and temperature. The "smart battery" can also communicate its cell protection information with the laptop. Also, unlike Ni-Cd and Mi-Mh batteries which have a "memory effect", Li-Ion batteries do not, so they can be continuously charged. This also means Li-Ion batteries have long shelf life.
External antennas and power boosters:
Most antennas for cellular phones make use of a flat metal surface (such as the roof of a car, rooft, or a file cabinet) to provide a ground plane to bounce signals off.
Select the level of gain:
For each connector and for each foot of cable between the antenna and analog device, about 0.10db gain is lost. About 0.15db gain is lost from digital devices.
Tinted glass and defroster wires block signals, so won't accomodate glass mounted antennas.
I have a wilson 301103 antenna hooked to a Wilson Amplifier / Repeater sold through alternative wireless or antenna warehouse can serve several phones in a building or vehicle, unlike $270 Jim Wilson in-vehicle direct connection or $645 JDTECK in-home booster for individual 1900 MHz phones.
Globalstar Evolution II Plan in North America
unlimited talk for $39.99/month on 1 year plans with the $499 GSP-1700 device built by Ericsson, QUALCOMM, Telit to include Qualcomm's CDMA cellular with SMS.
256 kbps data transfer from 2nd generation low earth orbiting (LEO) satellites (48 of them)
Coverage Map shows that Direct Internet calls (Dialing #777 send) cannot be made in China. They're working on service in Central American countries (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama).
Iridium Satellite LLC.
Your first name:
Your family name:
Your location (city, country):
Your Email address:
Top of Page